Senin, 05 November 2007


1. Concept of Effectiveness
According to Manser (2000:138) effective “is producing the result that is wanted or intended.” Effectiveness means the capability of, or success in, achieving a given goal. Contrary to efficiency, the focus of effectiveness is the achievement as such, not the resources spent, so not anything that is efficient, but anything that is efficient also has to be effective.
Based on the Brevadum said “effectiveness is adequate to accomplish a purpose; producing the intended or expected result. (On line) Randum said “effectiveness is capable, competent refer to that which is able to produce a (desired) effect; applied to that which has the power to or which actually does; produce an effect. (On line)
According Miffin effective is having an intended or expected effect; producing a strong impression; operative. So effectiveness is producing or capable of producing a desired effect. (On line) Effectiveness is producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect; able to accomplish a purpose. (On line)
The writer concludes that effectiveness is as a quality of producing desired effect relying on the result , a desired result effect, in effect, operative, actual not merely theoretical, making a striking impression, equipped and ready for combat.
2. Concept of Teaching
Some people think that teaching is a daily activity of the teacher. The teacher always organizes the material and prepares what the teacher wants to bring in class to give for students.
According to the Manser (2000:443) teaching is “to give lessons to somebody or give somebody knowledge and skill.” According to Setiyadi (2006:20) teaching “is influenced by ideas on the nature of language (language theories and the learning conditions that make learners to acquire the language”. Teaching is good teaching happens when competent teachers with non discouraging personalities use non defensive approaches to language and cherish their students”.
According to Engkoswara (1988:45) defines that teaching is an activity to organize or arrange the environmental as well and conduct with someone so that the process of learning is happen. While Hornby (1975:889) states his definition that teaching is giving an instruction to cause know or be able to do something giving knowledge, a skill, giving lesson of school, etc
Smith in Hyman (1982:6), “teaching is a system of action intended to include learning”. Gage stated in Hyman also said that “by teaching we mean, for the present purpose of defining research on teaching, any interpersonal influence aimed at changing the ways in which others persons can or will behave. Scheffler in Hyman defines teaching as “characterized as an activity aimed at the achievement of learning and practiced in such manner as to respect the student’s intellectual integrity and capacity for independent judgments.
According Brown (1987:6) teaching “is guiding and facilitating learning. Enables the learners to learn, setting the conditions for learning. Further he adds that teaching also means showing of helping someone to learn now to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge until the learns know or understand.
Then Sudjana (2000:79) states that teaching is interaction between teacher and students in its interaction process. The teacher is doing his activities that called teaching, whereas the students who are doing their activities that called studying. Based on the definition of terms the writer concluded that teaching is giving the information, knowledge and skill to helping them to studying something until the learners understand.
Furthermore Haskew and McClendon classified that teaching are:
a. Teaching is action to increase the odds that potential learners will learn
b. Teaching is action to point learning to word desired accomplishment by learners
c. Teaching is action to make knowledge make sense.
d. Teaching is action to enhance the persons who are learners. In a nutshell, our educational system depends upon teaching to help individuals reach their full potentials.
e. Teaching is action to present learners a live opportunity to learn.
3. Concept of Speaking
According to Manser (2000:414) to “speak is talk to somebody about something, use your voice to say something; be able to use a language; make a speech to an audience; say or state something. According Rasmussen, speaking is commonly as speech or man’s way of understanding and living with other men, a two-side activity of the speaker and of the listeners, the blending of this elements; thought-mental processes; language-molding of thought and feelings into words; voice-carrying thought and words though vocal sound to someone else; actions bodily bearing and responds and listening, to arouse corresponding ideas, meanings and action in other.
Bygate states in Emmametcalf “speaking is the skill by which learners are most frequently judged and through which they make a lose friends”. It is the vehicle for excellence of social solidarity, social ranking of professional advancement and business. It is also the medium through which much language is learnt. Based on definition of terms the writer conclude that speaking is a activities to give the information to the other people/somebody about something or info. (On line)
Stephen M. Fournier shares general tips of good communication in many from and styles. They are:
a. No rule is ever in stone and breaking the rules and something be the best way to get your points across. You should figure out what works best for you and develop your own style.
b. Don’t be fooled into thinking that rhetoric is an innate ability, it a learned skill. Behind every perfect delivery is hours of careful preparation. The only way to become a good speaker is to practice. Take every opportunity you can speak. No suggestions will do you any good if you don’t take a time to apply it.
c. Whenever you do speak, always dress appropriately. You should look at least as good your audience does. If you are appearing as an authority on your subject, dress better that audience, if possible.
d. Always try to be informed on your subject. An audience can usually tell if you don’t know what you are talking about. If someone asks a question you don’t have an answer to, it is okay to say that aren’t sure. Be especially careful when your words may have undesired consequences.
e. After you speak, take the time to note what you did well and what you want to improve. You may also want to ask a friend to evaluate part or all your speech. When you do, remember that they are giving you their opinion.
f. Don’t become defensive at what they say. Their evaluation may give you valuable insight. On the other hand it may be wrong. Either way, it can be a good learning experience.
4. Concept of Teaching Speaking by Using Film
According to the Manser (2000:160) Film is “Cinema picture movie; roll of thin plastic used in photography; thin layer of something”. Collier and friends (1967:186) said that film is one of the teacher’s most powerful teaching tools able the arouse pupil interest, to re-create the past, to show the petals of a flower open in seconds and complex information from many varied sources.
There are two kinds of film, 16mm and 8 mm films, both silent and sound. These may be in black and white or color. In school entertainment, films are commonly 16 mm and are mostly of the sound type. 16mm films are most expensive. The different between these two kinds of films only in their duration of showing, 16 mm is showing about 10 minutes to 30 minutes and 8 mm is about 30 second and 40 minutes. However, a variety of 16 mm and 8 mm films present the same subject, idea or concepts in a number of way.
Milli Fazey of Kentucky educational Television (KET) 1999 suggest that teacher of using a video as three part lesson including pre-viewing, viewing and post-viewing activities.
a. Pre-Viewing
“People presenting the video before and then the teacher should engage the learners’ interest in what they will be doing and prepare them to do it successfully. The teacher tells the students or leads them to discover for themselves why they are viewing the video. Preparation may include a previewing activity or a discussion of new vocabulary from the video. It may involve looking at still pictures from the video and predicting language and content to be covered. Finally previewing preparation means ensuring that an operating.”
b. Viewing
“While learners view the video” the teacher should remain in the classroom with the learners to observe their reactions and see what do not understand, what they are intrigued by and what bothers them. The teachers are there also to press the pause, rewind and play buttons as needed. Something it best to leave the light on. This facilitates the teacher’s observation and enables learners to take notes and to complete worksheets.
c. Post Viewing Activities
“After the viewing” the teacher should and clarify complex points encourage and explain assign follow up activities, whether they are include in the text and the material that accompany the instructional videos or they are developed for authentic videos.
Based on definition of terms the writer concluded that film is one of the visual aids that show a movie and role play by actors and actress that showed on TV without using episode.
5. Concept of Visual Aids
According to Arsyad (2006:29), visual aid a way to produce material using mechanic and electronic machines to show audio and visual messages. According to Manser (2000:481) visual aids is picture, video, so on used in teaching to help people understand something. According Miarso and Friends, visual aid is use by teacher to transfer an idea and experience, equipment and material used for communication in instruction. Implies technique based upon practices utilized in education and training.
According to Arsyad (2006:29), audio-visual aids is a way to produce material by using mechanic and electronic machines to show audio and visual messages. Miarso and friends states that audio visual aids is used by teacher to transfer an idea and experience to students by eyes and ears.
The writer conclude that visual aids is a media which can be used to show or transfer messages by mechanic and electronic materials or machines that we can both see and hear.
There are many kinds of audio-visual aids. According to Arsyad (2006:33) there are two categorizes of audio-visual aid:
a. Traditional Media
1. Visual Silent
a) Opaque Projector
b) Overhand Projector
c) Slides
d) Filmstrips
2. Visual that not projector
a) Picture, Poster
b) Photo
c) Chart
d) Exhibition, info board
3. Audio
a) Disc Record
b) Cassette, Reel, Cartridge
4. Multimedia
a) Slide + Voice (tape)
b) Multi Image
5. Visual dynamic
a) Film
b) Television
c) Video
6. Printed Materials
a) Text book
b) Module, Program text
c) Work book
d) Science magazine
e) Hand out
7. Realia
a) Model
b) Specimen
c) Manipulative (map)
8. Games
a) Riddle
b) Simulation
c) Board Games
b. Modern Technology or Media
1. Telecommunication Media
a) Teleconference
b) Tele lecture
2. Microprocessor Media
a) Computer assisted instruction
b) Computer games
c) Intelligent tutor
d) Interactive
e) Hypermedia
f) Compact video disc
According to Arsyad (2006:75) the use of audio visual aids can be classified based on the learning characteristic and lesson content. The classified based on learning characteristic consist of:
a. Audio Cassette
If the lesson need revise and update information, can be used in medium group (10-50 persons), small group (2-10 persons) and individual test or tutor
b. Film
Can be used in big group (more than 50 persons), medium group, small group and individual test
c. Computer
Can be used in small group and individual test
d. Video Disc
Can be used also in small group and individual test
e. Television
Can be used in big and medium group
There are many kinds of audio visual aids but in this paper, the writer only focus on film. Film or which is famous called motion picture in several years are most valuable tools used by teacher in teaching. It can effectively remove the limitations of time and space placed on the typical classroom learning situation.
6. Concept of Cartoon
According Dobson (1974:72) said; many teachers like to use cartoons as devices to stimulate conversation. The facial expressions of cartoon figure may inspire students to interpret the thoughts behind the expressions and inspire students to interpret the thoughts behind the expressions and the story implicit in cartoons provides the students with something to describe or narrate.
Generally, it is best to show cartoons with captions or strips without dialogue, so that the student can supply his own interpretation. You can trace a cartoon on a ditto master, eliminating all the words and reproduce it in multiple copies for classroom use only. Have students examine the cartoons; then they can either describe the story or create dialogues that fit the illustrations.
According to Manser (2000:59) cartoon is ‘amusing drawing or series of drawing in a newspaper; film made by photographing a series of drawing; person who draws cartoons. Chilvers said: “cartoon is a full size drawing made for the purpose of transferring a design to a painting or tapestry or other work. Michael and Deborah said: “A full size drawing used by an artist to transfer a design to a large, finished work. (On line) According Encyclopedia cartoon is ‘either of two types of drawings: in the fine arts, a preliminary sketch for a more complete work; in journalism, a humorous or satirical drawing”. (On line)
7. Advantages and Disadvantages
The writer observes that teaching speaking through by using cartoon films has good effect to the students. By showing cartoon film to give the students a lot of ideas to tell about their film, so it will invite them into a conversation situation. Beside that we could increase their speaking skill.
Film also has advantages and disadvantages:
1. Advantages
a. Film can be use to complete the experience of students when they read, discussed and practice in the classroom. Film can shows which object that we could not see, for example: how is heart worked?
b. Film can be repeated to show a process of something. For example: how is ATM machine used?
c. Film can use to motive and gives positive impact to the student. For example: film about health. Film can show how malaria disease is infected? So the student can be motivated to have a healthy life.
2. Disadvantages
a. Film is expensive to plan and produce
b. Film which is available not always relate to the need and lesson purpose so we sometimes need to created our own film
c. When film is showing the picture is move continuously so some students sometime can not follows the information.


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